e-book Антрепренер под диваном (Russian Edition)

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Dress code at the theater became much more independent. While men were at the front, women did many of their jobs. They went into farming and building, worked in factories, became drivers and conductresses on buses and trains, and even ran many businesses. They also went into military service, some being sent to the front, and not only as nurses. Women gradually became accustomed to wearing uniform. The military style was soon reflected in fashion. Before the war coats had normally been shorter than skirts. Now they resembled uniforms and covered everything.

Shawl collars with fur trimming were replaced by strict lapels. Clothes simply became more functional. The narrow straight skirt was replaced by a calf-length pleated skirt. Hats became smaller and were worn with no decoration. Jewelry was more or less taboo. This could be worn indoors and outdoors, from morning till evening.

Loosely cut and made of cheap, washable material, it was fastened with buckles and had no hooks and eyes. Clothes did become simpler because working women found that uniforms and working clothes were practical and had a certain appeal: they made women look competent and serious. Fashionable clothes were still created and sold, but it did not seem right to appear in them on the street. A skirt and pullover were more appropriate. In there was a short period of frivolity, when the so-called war crinoline was introduced. This was a mid-calf skirt made of abundant material and worn over several petticoats, reminiscent of the 19th-century crinoline.

Many couture houses including Poiret and Vionnet were closed during the war. Chanel, on the other hand, introduced her jersey suits which suited the times perfectly. Many women did not want to give up the freedoms which the war had forced on them. Morals had changed, and so had clothes: both had become looser. The shorter dress that now revealed the ankles was more popular than pants which reminded wearers of hard work. Women wanted to enjoy themselves. They wanted to dance and they could move best in the simplest dress, cut straight from top to bottom like a tube. This design also had the advantage of being something that every woman could copy and run up on her sewing machine at home.

The fashion industry needed new ideas and new customers. IV Translate the paragraphs in italics in a written form.

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Discuss the questions. How did the war influence fashion? What was the dress code at the theatre? What were women doing during that time? What was the so-called war crinoline like?

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What was more popular: dress or pants? What was necessary for fashion industry?

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You work for AdCam, a famous advertising agency based in the U. Could you give me ideas for the following advertising campaigns? The boutiques are located in the central part of the city, they specialize in designer clothes. Will they offer a wide range of Ukrainian brands? Sure, our goal is to improve sales and attract new customers. The shops are located in residential areas. And what do you know about a new packaging material? The material is eco-friendly. It is a bit more expensive than polyethylene. What is it made of? It is made of a mixture of cotton, acrylic and polyester.

Fine, thank you very much for your attention and your time. Everything will be all right. IX Make up your own dialogues using the key-words and expressions from the unit. TEXT C. I Mind the following words:.

Linen production in England was very important and allowed for creation of rich fabrics. Powerful European kingdoms had a great impact on fashion. Tailors of that time were not so skilled as they are now. The monarchs were the only persons who could afford rich fabrics. One of the ways displaying the power of kings and queens was clothing. How did monarchs treat fashion? I Revise the vocabulary minimum of Unit 2 to be checked up. Fashion Evolution.

Men and women wore very different clothes at the beginning of the eighteenth century than they did at the end.

Российский государственный гуманитарный университет Russian State University for the Humanities

The skill of dressmakers had developed to such an extent that it caused more attention was paid to details and ornaments. Despite the growing skills of tailors dress became simpler. Great changes reflected the political and cultural life during the century including the American and French Revolutions. No longer the monarchs were the only trendsetters of fashion. Later toward the end of the century clothing styles began to simplify. During the nineteenth century dress changed a lot.

The change was influenced by the introduction of machines to the construction of clothing.

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Sewing machines, power looms or weaving machines and other inventions increased the productivity of clothing manufacture. And in the coming century women would experience much more liberty and a variety of new styles would emerge to reflect this. The period of World War I was one of great transitions in the world of fashion. Not only styles for women were changed in their basic silhouette but the very system through which new styles were introduced and popularized also changed.

Paris was the center of the world fashion but more and more people got their fashion ideas from magazines. Social changes especially the increasing liberation of women and the coming of war also had a great impact on fashion. At the dawn of the twentieth century Paris was the center of the fashion world. Clothing designers from Paris introduced clothing at seasonal shows and sold clothes to the wealthiest people in Europe and the United States. Increasingly, however, these fashions began to reach more and more people.

Publishers began to sell pattern books of fashionable clothes that allowed people to make the clothes at home if they were good sewers. Soon department stores which were becoming popular throughout the West also began to sew and sell dresses modelled on the latest Paris fashions. The introduction of the sewing machine combined with the factory system allowed for the mass production of clothing. This form of clothing was called ready-to-wear.

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By the first years of the twentieth century ready-to-wear clothing was available to women too. What changes did dress undergo in the eighteenth century? What did these changes reflect? What inventions in fashion were presented in the nineteenth century? Who was the first fashion designer? How can you characterize the twentieth century in point of fashion? What role in fashion did Paris play at the dawn of the twentieth century? How did publishers influence the spreading of new fashion trends? When did ready-to-wear clothing become available?

At the beginning of the eighteenth century monarchs were not the only …. Despite the growing skills of dressmakers clothing began …. Such inventions as … , … allowed for the mass production of clothing in the nineteenth century. In the twentieth century publishers began to sell … allowing people to make the clothes at home. In … century ready-to-wear clothing become available to women. Charles Frederick Worth Industrializes Fashion.