A lot of times the children would have to go to work for the factories as well because they are a lot smaller and can fit in smaller spaces. Many young women would work for the factories when they were younger but once they became married they would quit their jobs to take care of the home.
To make ends meet, some women would even have to continue working in the factories or mines while they were pregnant. Before this, there were only the extremely wealthy who inherited their money and possessions or the extremely poor working class, who had to work very hard for every penny they had. People who were in the middle class tended to work jobs like shop keepers, bank tellers, merchants, insurance agents, accountants, managers, doctors, lawyers, and teachers. The middle class men did not have to work as physically or as long of hours as the working class did, which allowed them to spend more time with their wives and children.
Middle class children often did not have to work and were able to attend school during the day. Some middle class families were well-off enough that they could hire a servant or maid who would cook or clean their houses occasionally. As time passed, women started having less children because families could not afford to send them all to school.
The infant mortality rate also decreased because of better health care options and less pollution in the streets. In what ways were Lower Class families affected by the Industrial Revolution? For more information click here. In the English Industrial Revolution there were many changes to occupations throughout the country as more and more people moved into the big cities.
The traditional family dynamic was in constant change in-between the late 18 th century throughout the 19 th century.
Women and children had to work numerous long and dangerous jobs. If a woman were to work the same job as a man it was very rare for the woman to make more money let alone the same as her male counterpart.
Whether it be those working in factories, coal mines, or mills people were getting ill at seemingly faster rates. Two examples of individuals in the English Industrial Revolution are shown below. One of which is an example of two girls who, considering their age, would not even be working in the societies most industrialized nations there are today. This allows for a greater look at how different expectations for children were at this time period. The other example is a look at a middle aged woman who explains perfectly the way labor and societal norms at this time affected women in particular and how they reacted.
Overall during this time period there were many different jobs, but many of them had similar effects on those working both mentally, culturally, and health wise. Rachel was in a day school and she can read a little. She was run over by a tram a while ago and was home ill a long time, but she has got over it. From to , child poverty increased from 17 to 22 percent of all children under age 18, before declining from to , to 17 percent.
A small uptick in , to 21 percent, may be attributed to a change in income reporting.
The Family and Family Structure Classification Redefined for the Current Times
Many researchers and advocates use a measure of less than percent of the poverty threshold to identify families with low incomes. Eight percent of children lived in families in deep poverty below 50 percent of the poverty threshold. All these measures of poverty have moved in similar directions over time Appendix 1. The Supplemental Poverty Measure SPM is an alternative measure that accounts for the effects of taxes and in-kind transfers such as SNAP benefits , regional differences in cost of living, complex family structures, out-of-pocket medical expenditures, and costs associated with work.
In , the SPM yielded a child poverty rate of 16 percent, down from 18 percent in Hispanic and black children are much more likely to live in poor families than their non-Hispanic white and Asian counterparts. In , 11 percent of both non-Hispanic white and Asian children were impoverished, compared with 25 percent of Hispanic children and 29 percent of black children. In the same year, more than half of Hispanic 54 percent and black 57 percent children lived in low-income families. By contrast, 27 percent of Asian and of non-Hispanic white children lived in low-income families.
Black children were more likely than Hispanic children to be in deep poverty 15 and 11 percent, respectively , and both were more likely to be in deep poverty than non-Hispanic white or Asian children each at 5 percent. In , the poverty rate for children under age 5 was higher than for children ages 5 to 17, at 19 and 16 percent, respectively Appendix 2.
Children are much more likely to be poor if they live in a family headed by a single mother than if they live in a married-couple family. In , 41 percent of children living in single-mother families were poor, compared with 8 percent of children living in married-couple families. This pattern holds for white, black, Hispanic, and Asian children. For example, nearly half of black and Hispanic children in single-mother families lived below the federal poverty line in 43 and 48 percent, respectively.
However, only 10 percent of black children and 15 percent of Hispanic children in married-couple families lived in poverty in After narrowing in the s, the poverty gap between children in married-couple and single-mother families grew from to , and then stabilized for a few years. From to , the difference widened, but has since leveled off except for a slight narrowing in Appendix 2. From onward, the ACS has yearly estimates of children living at multiple income-to-poverty ratios for areas with populations of 65, or more, and five-year-average estimates for areas with 20, or more.
The Library is always pleased to consider items for donation to the collections as long as they meet our collections policy. We collect a wide range of materials relating to all aspects of New Zealand and Pacific life, including published and unpublished histories of families, groups, districts and organisations. To discuss making a donation, contact the Library via the Ask-a-Librarian form with details about the items you wish to offer.
The Library regularly harvests websites that meet our collections policy. If you have published your history research online as a website, you can nominate your site to be added to our collections. If you decide to publish your work in print or as an ebook or CD-ROM, there are legal obligations to deposit 1 or 2 copies with the Library, depending on the size of the print run 1 copy if published digitally or less than physical copies published, 2 copies if more than published. Google Advanced and family history search engines such as Mocavo may be helpful for finding online forum discussions about people you are interested in, family trees, etc.
Try Google Books , although copyright restrictions may mean you only get a snippet view. The Internet Archive is a wonderful resource, likewise the Hathi Trust , and FamilySearch has a growing number of digitised books. Many websites can assist you with your family history research, including a number of commercial sites where people submit their family trees; although you may need to verify the information. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints hold records that span billions of names across hundreds of collections — including birth, marriage, death, probate, land, military, International Genealogical Index IGI and more.
Their wiki and research guides give helpful advice. The Commonwealth War Graves Commission has the personal and service details and places of commemoration for 1.
Although Ancestry. Archway is the online catalogue to New Zealand Government Archives. Particularly useful are the Research guides as well as the audiovisual archives material produced by the National Film Unit. Explore our collections to find books, images, maps, articles and more. Hosts millions of digital images and objects from New Zealand libraries, museums, and institutions; and facilitates activities that re-use and re-purpose digital content.
- What's In a Name? Your Link to the Past;
- The Gay President: A Novel.
- Regard Naufragé (FICTION) (French Edition).
- Search The Canadian Encyclopedia.
- Teaching Business Writing: A good refresher and quick reference.
Online history and genealogy resources, including Auckland eResources , Auckland Area Passenger Arrivals —, — , Immigration , Index Auckland: local history, arts and music , Iwidex , and Heritage images and photography eResources. Online Cenotaph database is a useful and growing resource for biographical and service details for more than , New Zealand service men and women from the 19th century till today, with a focus on the First and Second World Wars.
Auckland Museum Library. Has a wealth of online resources such as Cemeteries and cemetery records including a comprehensive directory of online cemetery databases; Digital collections include the digitised Canterbury Police Gazette —; Emigration includes scanned Embarkation lists —; Family History guide ; and Newspaper archives and indexes a directory of NZ-wide holdings.
Offer a useful local history guide , as well as the Evening Post clipping database, Upper Hutt City Library — Recollect heritage collections. A knowledge basket of images, audio, video, and documents, that are collected and catalogued by the community. A significant heritage collection that is focused on the Pacific and Antarctica, with a special emphasis on the Otago and Southland regions of New Zealand.
- Between A Clutch and A Hard Place (Myrtle Crumb Series Book 1).
- Magister Rösslein (German Edition).
- Settling the West: Immigration to the Prairies from to | Pier 21!
- DNA testing can bring families together, but gives mixed answers on ethnicity | Science News?
- Are you descended from royalty? Six things to consider.
- On this page!
- Alexas First Day of School (I am a STAR Personalized Book Series 1);
APNK host a number of online digital repositories on behalf of public libraries. These repositories are called Kete and library staff or members of the community use them to share: photographs, audio, video, documents, personal accounts, memoirs, and stories. Contributors range from individuals and small local organisations through to large institutions with nationally-significant collections. Articles, images, and resources on a wealth of topics from the Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Includes the Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, with over 3, biographies and a vast collection of online resources on the history, culture, peoples, natural environment, economy and society of New Zealand.
Established in at Victoria University of Wellington, the NZETC is a rich resource of digitised New Zealand texts on a variety of topics including New Zealand history, literature and biography, as well as broader projects focusing on Maori legal resources, encompassing Maori and Pacific subjects amongst others. Blain biographical directory of Anglican clergy in the South Pacific. Births, deaths and marriages registries.